"All the News That's Fit to Print" Spring, 1792 Edition 1 News US Victory in Georgia
SAVANNAH, GA -- The United States formally concluded its campaign against Seminole-led Indians in Georgia last month, disbanding its militia forces nine months after the US' decisive victory at the Battle of Ocmulgee Town.
President George Washington disbanded the four militia divisions raised to combat the invasion last month, marking the official end of the two-year Seminole War. The Seminoles kicked off the conflict in 1789, undertaking a murderous campaign to ravish Georgian frontier settlements. The Georgia militia quickly found itself overwhelmed, and the Seminoles ransacked the state with impunity for much of the year. President Washington called up four divisions worth of militiamen to combat this threat in 1790, though, and those troops achieved a string of victories in late 1790 and early 1791. Most of the Indians gave up the fight at that point.
Colonel William Charles Bathurst rose to become the hero of the conflict, though the militia commander did not survive the war. Bathurst commanded the militia forces during the Battle of Suwanee Village and the Battle of Fort Mountain, two key victories in the campaign. Bathurst and Colonel Thomas Garrett jointly commanded the American forces during the next major engagement, the Battle of Ocmulgee Town, where the United States achieved a decisive victory, ending the conflict. Bathurst died during that battle, struck by an arrow. Garrett retained command through the rest of the day, distinguishing himself.
President Washington recommended that Bathurst be awarded the Military Badge of Merit in recognition of his accomplishments, but not everyone appreciated Bathurst's work. The State Gazette of North Carolina criticized Bathurst at length for his conduct during the Battle of Suwanee Village, during which militia forces reportedly massacred several hundred Indian women and children. The Southern paper alleged that Bathurst happily commanded his troops to execute prisoners and non-combatants. But Bathurst's officers denied these claims, declaring that the Indian women and children had joined the Indian men in violently resisting the militia.
It had not yet been decided yesterday whether Bathurst should receive that medal -- but it was very clear yesterday that the Seminole War had been decided for the United States.
House Approves Bank Bill
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- The House of Representatives approved Representative Andrew Beaumont's (F-SC) proposal to establish a national bank system yesterday, marking a significant victory for the Federalist majority.
The House voted 40-15 yesterday to approve the National Bank System Act of 1791, Representative Beaumont's compromise monetary proposal. Beaumont authored the legislation in a bid to please Federalists and Democrats, who strongly desired a national bank to stimulate economic growth, while also placating Republicans, who feared the power of such a central institution. The Beaumont proposal establishes four regional banks more apt to be controlled in each region, and then a national bank to coordinate those regional banks. The four regional banks encompassed New England (RI, MA, CT, NH, VT), the Mid-North (NY, PA, NJ), the Mid (MD, DE, VA), and the South (NC, SC, GA).
Representative Beaumont delivered an impassioned argument in favor of the legislation on the House floor, calling the bill constitutional because a national government needed a bank to perform its most basic functions. Beaumont also argued the nation needed a bank for economic reasons, noting that the United States faced a dearth of credit. Finally, Beaumont pointed towards the regional system as a way to address concerns about a national bank possessing too much power. No one besides Beaumont commented on the legislation.
The House previously rejected a national bank proposal, but only by one vote, thanks to a united Republican Party and a divided Federalist Party. The Federalist Party stood in solidarity in favor of the National Bank System Act, though, while the Republicans had no single view on the legislation.
The Nation's Newspaper, Renamed
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- The New York Daily Times shortened its name to become the New York Times yesterday after becoming the most read periodical in the nation.
The New York Times established itself as the most read paper nationally over the last year, surpassing both the Pennsylvania Gazette and the Boston Gazette. The Times controlled nearly a third of the news market yesterday, more than any other paper in the country. Citizens in every state read the paper as of this week, making it one of only three national periodicals. The newsgroup dominated the New York media market, being read by more than half of readers in the state. The company's profits increased by 40% year over year as a result of this growth.
The Editor of the New York Times, Matthew Swaim, credited the paper's journalists, deliverymen, and support staff for its rapid rise. "When I founded this periodical just three years ago, I saw it becoming a small bastion of objectiveness in the media world, not the nation's largest newspaper," he said, "I am shocked, pleased, and above all honored to be able to lead this paper to new heights thanks to the hard work of its staff." Swaim expressed "what I can only call the most severe gratitude for the opportunity to help inform voters through this great organization."
The New York Times remained a publicly traded company.
In the News
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- The House of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to approve the Apportionment Act of 1791 yesterday, which provided for the expansion of the House to ninety seats after this session. The bill awarded each state a congressional seat for every 40,000 inhabitants, slightly expanding the size of the average district, even as it expanded the size of the House of Representatives. Virginia stood as the largest recipient of seats still with Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York, and Connecticut not far behind.
PORT AU PRINCE, SD -- The French colonial government in Saint-Domingue appeared on the verge of collapse this year as the massive slave revolt on the island continued. Nearly 100,000 slaves had taken up arms as of last month, and colonial authorities were losing on every front. The slaves reportedly sought to transform their uprising into a full-on revolution with the ultimate goal of establishing a slave-dominated state.
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- The New York Legislature considered legislation yesterday providing for significant tax cuts in the state. United States Attorney James Terrus called for the cuts, which were widely supported by New York Federalists. Terrus noted that with revenue rising thanks to the national capital's placement in New York City, and expenditures falling due to the assumption of state debts, New York possessed the definite ability to cut taxes without impacting the provision of services. Terrus argued that those tax cuts could spark significant economic growth.
TRENTON, NJ -- The New Jersey Legislature considered legislation yesterday providing for electoral reform in the state. United States Attorney James Terrus called upon the state to act, asking the Legislature to drop its confusing at-large congressional districts in favor of a traditional single-district, single-representative system. Terrus argued that the traditional system allowed representatives to be held more accountable by the people, as representatives would serve smaller groups of people.
DOVER, DE -- The Delaware Legislature considered legislation yesterday aimed at establishing a public university to teach students in the state. Many expressed surprise that the state was even considering such a move, noting that it'd represent the first ever public university.
Opinion The Times' View: Tax Cuts Justified by Matthew Swaim, Editor
"There is no greater defense against tyranny than a well-informed voter." 1790 Election Edition (Winter, 1790) News The Gubernatorial Races
BOSTON, MA -- The readers of the New York Daily Times will decide two of four key gubernatorial races this November, those in New Hampshire and Rhode Island.
Josiah Bartlett, a Republican, and Governor John Sullivan, a Federalist, face off in New Hampshire. A former colonial assemblyman and Continental Congressman, Bartlett is presently the Chief Justice of the New Hampshire Supreme Court, having turned down an appointment to the United States Senate. Bartlett is widely regarded as a moderate Republican. A Major General during the War for Independence, Sullivan spent the last few years serving as President and then Governor of New Hampshire, though he also served in the Continental Congress and as State Attorney General. Sullivan is widely regarded as a more ardent Federalist. Bartlett is favored in the race.
Governor John Collins, a Federalist, and Arthur Fenner, a Republican, face off in Rhode Island. The incumbent Governor, Collins previously served in the Continental Congress, and as a representative to Washington. Though a moderate Federalist, Collins is best known for resolving to support the Constitution, despite popular opposition. The challenger in the race, Arthur Fenner, is a newcomer with little experience in government. He is viewed as a staunch Republican. Fenner is favored in the race.
Federalists and independents clash in two other states. Beverly Randolph, an independent, is fighting a losing battle against Henry Lee III, a Federalist, for election as Virginia's Governor. George Plater, also an independent, seems set to defeat John Eager Howard, a Federalist, to win Maryland's Governorship.
The House Races
TRENTON, NJ -- Voters in New Jersey must choose amongst a cluster of candidates in a confusing at-large election expected to be extremely important politically, though major electoral battles are also expected in New York's 3rd District and Rhode Island's 1st District.
There are eight candidates running in New Jersey's at large election to fill the state's four congressional seats. Four independents, two National Democrats, and two Republicans all seek election to Congress to represent the state. The eight candidates are listed as follows in order of estimated popularity: Abraham Clark (I) -- Clark is a folk hero in New Jersey, thanks to a long career of selfless service. While working as an attorney, Clark regularly provided free legal aid to poor persons accused of crimes, hoping to make the justice system more fair. While in the Continental Congress, Clark refused to use his influence to safeguard his two sons, both of whom were captured, imprisoned, and tortured by the British while serving in the Continental Congress. Indeed, when the British offered to free his children if he agreed to recant support for independence, Clark refused. Since the war, Clark has remained consistently involved in politics, and is very well-respected. Jonathan Dayton (ND) -- Representative Dayton is an incumbent, serving since 1789, though his service record is undermined by his failure to once attend a session of the House of Representatives. Dayton is a highly experienced legislator, having served in the Continental Congress, New Jersey General Assembly, and New Jersey Legislative Council. Dayton served with honor during the War for Independence as well, joining at the age of 15, and rising to the rank of Captain by war's end. But Dayton's hopes for re-election were significantly undermined by his failure to attend Congress, even once, during the last session. Elias Boudinot (I) -- Representative Boudinot is an incumbent, serving since 1789. A strong but independent supporter of the President, Boudinot is generally viewed as a moderate, who eschews both the Republicans' opposition to federal government and the National Democrats' support of a strong federal government. Previously, Boudinot served as a Continental Congressman and as President of the Continental Congress, and before that as a Colonel in the Continental Army. Before the war, Boudinot was an attorney and a New Jersey Provincial Assemblyman, where he fought for independence. Aaron Kitchell (R) -- New Jersey Assemblyman Aaron Kitchell is an experienced state legislator, whose spent much of the last decade in the New Jersey Assembly. He established a reputation there of opposition to the federal government, but is otherwise not particularly well-known. Lambert Cadwalader (ND) -- Representative Lambert Cadwalader is an incumbent, serving since 1789. Prior to being elected to Congress, he served in the Continental Congress, the New Jersey Provincial Assembly, and the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence. He served in the Continental Army during the War for Independence, where he achieved the rank of Colonel before being captured then paroled. James Linn (R) -- James Linn is an experienced juror and legislator, whose served in the New Jersey General Assembly and the New Jersey Legislative Council, where he was Vice President of the Council. Prior to that, he was an attorney and a Judge in Somerset County. Linn is known for his strong Republican views. John Witherspoon (I) -- A signer of the Declaration of Independence, Witherspoon intended a career as a clergyman, but found himself drawn into politics out of need. He served as President of the New Jersey College for a number of years, during which he transformed the college from a debt-riddled failure into a thoroughly sound, respected institution. He served twice in the New Jersey General Assembly, and strongly supported the United States Constitution. James Schureman (I) -- Representative Schureman is an incumbent, serving since 1789. He's staked out a record as a strong but independent supporter of President George Washington, while avoiding the partisan battles in New York City. He previously served in the Continental Congress and New Jersey General Assembly, where he was known for his proficiency in helping arrange compromises between competing factions. Schureman originally made a name for himself in the Continental Army, where he served with honor.
Representative Egbert Benson, a Federalist, faces a tough challenge from Theodorus Bailey, a Republican, in New York's 3rd Congressional District. An honored graduate of Harvard and Dartmouth, Benson made a name for himself as an attorney in New York City before the revolution, but gave up his profiting firm to support the revolution. He's staked out a position as a moderate Federalist during the course of a lengthy political career, previously serving as New York Attorney General, Continental Congressman, and New York Assemblyman. A career militiamen, Theodorus Bailey achieved the rank of Brigadier General during the Revolutionary War, and has remained politically involved since then. Benson is presently expected to defeat Bailey.
The voters of Rhode Island must choose between three candidates in the nation's only major three-way single-district race. Representative Benjamin Bourne, a moderate Federalist, faces a challenge from Paul Mumford, a National Democrat, and James Sheldon, a Republican. Bourne is a former soldier, assemblyman, and public servant, who staked out a pro-Washington position in Congress. Mumford is a former Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court, and the current LIeutenant Governor of Rhode Island. He is known for is strong support for direct democracy. Sheldon is a political newcomer with little experience, who is not very well known, but is popular due to his strong anti-government beliefs.
The Senate Races
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- New York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts hosted the three most important Senate races this year.
Senator Philip Schuyler, a Federalist, may be defeated by Aaron Burr, a Republican, in New York this year. A veteran legislator with years of experience in the New York General Assembly and New York State Senate, Schuyler truly distinguished himself during the War for Independence, when he served as a Major General, commanding the Northern Department. He played a role in uncovering Benedict Arnold's treachery in this position. A lawyer by trade, Burr is presently the New York State Attorney General, and previously served in the New York General Assembly. He is presently leading Schuyler by a wide margin.
Senator Jonathan Elmer, an independent, faces a tough challenge from John Rutherfurd, a Federalist, in New Jersey. A doctor by trade, Elmer is a relatively low-key legislator, whose served in the Continental Congress and the New Jersey Legislative Council. He was a militia officer during the War for Independence, but never fought due to health issues that plague him to this day. Rutherfurd is a New Jersey Assemblyman, whose made a quick name for himself over the last two years as a strong supporter of Washington, and moderate policymaker. He is currently leading Elmer considerably.
Senator Tristram Dalton, a Federalist, faces a challenge from George Cabot, a National Democrat, in Massachusetts. The incumbent Dalton previously served as Speaker of the Massachusetts General Assembly, and as a Massachusetts Senator, before entering federal politics. He is considered a strong supporter of the President, but also a reasonable policymaker, who supports republicanism. Cabot is a former member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, whose staked out a position as a strong National Democrat, favoring pure democracy and a larger federal government.
James Monroe is running for Senate as a Republican in Virginia, and is expected to win by a landslide.
In the News
NEW YORK CITY, NY -- The House of Representatives moved to a vote yesterday on the Assumption Act, James Terrus' proposal for the federal government to assume state debts. Most expected the plan to pass given strong National Demcoratic and Federalist support, despite strong Republican opposition.
NEWBERN, NC -- The Southern Journal-Constitution levied charges yesterday that Colonel William Bathust, commander of a militia unit operating in Georgia, massacred defenseless Indian women and children. Bathurst claimed that all Indians were in effect combatants. There was no comment from the Washington administration about whether charges might be brought against Bathurst, but it certainly appeared unlikely.
The Times' Candidates
by the New York Times Editorial Board
The New York Daily Times strives for neutrality in its news reporting, but the staff and editorial board here possess opinions just like everyone else. The NYDT is proud to represent those views through electoral endorsements. The NYDT urges its readers to make informed decisions based off its objective content -- but also hopes its readers will consider the opinions of the staff that serve them daily.
Representatives from New Jersey: The NYDT endorses Abraham Clark, Elias Boudinot, John Witherspoon, James Schureman for United States Representative from New Jersey. These four independents can provide better representation for New Jersey than any political party.
Abraham Clark embodies the virtues of service and sacrifice, virtues fundamental to being a good lawmaker. The best representatives are those committed to serving their constituents -- those that will put constituents' needs above personal political gain. Clark did that regularly as an attorney when he took on the cases of poor, desperate citizens for no profit at all, something unheard of in his jurisdiction. He continued to demonstrate his commitment to the public good in the Continental Congress, where he refused to make any decision that might slightly benefit him, even when it meant leaving his two sons, officer in the Continental Army, in harm's way. The best representatives are also those that exemplify self-sacrifice -- those that will do what is necessary, even if it might mean political misfortune. Clark proved beyond any doubt that he'd put integrity above personal considerations when, as a Continental Congressman, he refused to renounce his support for independence -- even though the British threatened to torture Clark's captured sons unless he did. Clark refused to give up the cause of liberty, even though it meant great political suffering, because he felt the people's well-being more important than his own. Let the people repay Clark now by elevating him to Congress -- and let the people repay themselves by electing a man who will serve and sacrifice for New Jersey.
Elias Boudinot is tireless public servant, whose unending commitment to the national good makes him amongst the best candidates for Congress this year. Boudinot supported independence long before the war, fighting for it in the New Jersey Provincial Assembly. The New Jersey native sacrificed much of his personal wealth to ensure New Jersey militia units were properly equipped, then joined the revolutionary cause himself. But Boudinot did not get the combat position he desired -- instead, he was desired the tedious, difficult job of overseeing British prisoners, and of supplying American prisoners. He excelled in his role despite his preference for action because his dedication came not from a desire for glory or gain, but a hope to truly help the cause of liberty. Later, in the Continental Congress, he made a name for himself as a smart legislator, a reasonable man willing to compromise where necessary, and for that reason he was made President of the Continental Congress. Now, after two years of service in the House of Representatives, he wishes re-election to continue supporting reasonable, non-partisan policies -- he should be given the chance.
John Witherspoon is a distinguished man of faith and honor, who an be relied upon to advance New Jersey's interests. He spent a career as a clergyman before reluctantly entering politics, having hoped to spend his entire life helping his community. But called upon to help improve education, he found himself serving as President of the New Jersey College, an institution he turned around in just a few years. Witherspoon found the college a debt-riddled, incompetence-saddled college -- and turned it into a premier national university. Voters drafted him into the New Jersey General Assembly thereafter, where he helped write key legislation that brought about the formation of our nation. Amidst all of this, Witherspoon made his claim to fame by signing the Declaration of Independence, declaring at a dangerous time that he desired either liberty or death. Witherspoon possesses the integrity, experience, and honor needed in a United States Congressman, and should be given the opportunity to serve.
James Schureman is brilliant young politician, whose made a name for himself in Congress as a reasonable moderate. The fires of war forged Schureman, who shot through the ranks of the Continental Army, before winning election to the New Jersey General Assembly. He spent years serving there, helping to craft many of the most important laws in the state's history, and becoming an important player. Ultimately, he won a promotion to the Continental Congress, where he was one of few representatives with a perfect attendance record. Schureman saw at a time when most were afraid of government that the federal government was still important -- and he did everything in his power to make sure that government delivered for its people, without delivering tyranny upon them. He's done even better as a United States Representative, repeatedly putting New York's interests above his own. He made perhaps the greatest name for himself through his support of the Bill of Rights, a document for which he proudly voted.
Representative from Rhode Island: The New York Daily Times must endorse Benjamin Bourne for Rhode Island Representative, given his incredible record of public service. Bourne distinguished himself on the battlefield during the Revolutionary War, not as a general, but as a lieutenant, fighting on the front lines with the citizens he now seeks to serve. Following the war, he served in the New Jersey State Assembly, where he made a name for himself for crafting militia law. Several years later, he spearheaded the effort to overhaul New Jersey's militia laws, creating the system in place today. Since 1789, he's superbly represented Rhode Island in the House of Representatives, helping preserve Rhode Island's agricultural interests while also promoting its booming merchant industry. Bourne now seeks re-election to continue promoting a intelligent defense policies, reasonable trade policies, and generally a moderate direction for the country. He is definitely the best choice in Rhode Island.
Representative from New York's 3rd Congressional District New York is a state known for its experienced, competent legislators, men like James Terrus, Jackson Clay, and Egbert Benson. The NYDT proudly endorses Benson because without a doubt, he will provide the state the most powerful representation possible. Benson's experience is unparalleled -- he's served as New York Attorney General, State Assemblyman, Safety Committeeman, Continental Congressman, Annapolis Convention delegate, and United States Congressman. Before that, he spent years practicing law to great effect, becoming amongst the most influential attorneys in New York City. Benson gave up that authority to support the revolution, but he never gave up the competence that led him to rise so quickly. Now, he's risen again, and New York should elevate him once more to Congress to allow him to continue his superb service.
Governor of New Hampshire New Hampshire deserves a governor that is a man of principle, which is why the New York Daily Times endorses Josiah Bartlett. Bartlett is a Republican, making him an oddity in the NorthEast, but his reasonable nature and moderate views allow him to excellently serve his state. He's proven himself to be a logical, reliable servant while on the New Hampshire Supreme Court, and previously proved his legislative prowess while drafting the Articles of Confederation. Let this man with great legislative and judicial experience now join the third branch of government, and become Governor.
Governor of Rhode Island Governor John Collins is almost certain to face defeat this November, but his commitment to his principles brings the unyielding respect (and the endorsement) of the New York Daily Times. Collins supported ratifying the Constitution at a time when few in his state supported his views -- but he stood by his principles, even in the face of certain political destruction. The nation can use more statesmen like him -- more men who will serve the public good, not give into the tyranny of the masses.
Senator from New York: An able representative of the interests of the State of New York in the Senate, Senator Schuyler has shown the leadership that this country needs. As a General during the War for Independence, he worked hard alongside our great President George Washington to secure freedom and liberty for this young Republic while Mr. Aaron Burr was busy serving with and under Benedict Arnold, a man whose actions were so despicable they are below the mention of this publication. While Senator Schuyler was building his own commercial enterprise- a successful sea operation that has given Senator Schuyler the knowledge and the experience to deal with the affairs of international commerce that is important to these united States, Mr. Burr was the confidant and friend of Benedict Arnold who was hatching his plot to overthrow the government of these united States and assassinate the President.
With the support of the legislature of New York, there is no question that Senator Schuyler will be able to continue to serve the State of New York with honor. He'll fight for a stronger national economy to allow our nation to thrive, while Aaron Burr seeks only to turn it over to thieves and ruffians- to the kind of Republicans that have voted to legalize piracy. To the kind of Republicans that want to turn all decisions to commoners with no understanding. This country needs Senator Schuyler, and the State of New York would do right by sending him to represent the State in the Senate.
Senator from New Jersey The New York Daily Times cannot offer an endorsement in the New Jersey senate race for two candidates of equal stature face off there, and a victory by either will be a victory for all.
Senator from Massachusetts Another experienced voice in the Senate, Tristram Dalton from Massachusetts is a man whose experience and history is what these united States needs now, more than ever. Educated in law, experienced as a merchant, Senator Dalton has put this new Republic on a path to future growth and prosperity based on his education and experience. And his love for this country goes back to the founding of this new nation, having worked hard and tirelessly for independence since those glorious days in 1776. He seeks to retain his seat from George Cabot, a man who recently was an ally of Dalton before joining an organization known as the "National Democrats," an organization built around personalities and the desire for power rather than the strength of our union. While Dalton was promoting strength and prosperity, Cabot was instead part of a group to expand the right to vote to all men- to the heretics, to the debtors, the prisoners, the criminals that would delight greatly in the decimation and destruction of our union. While Dalton has been working for a stronger union, Cabot was seeking to destroy it by turning power over to the mob.
There is no more sensible choice in this year than Tristam Dalton. An honest Christian and a servant of Massachusetts, he is the man to keep this union strong while it is clear that George Cabot, traitor and heathen, seeks to tear it asunder.