(a) The President shall appoint, with the advice and consent of the Senate, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, and there shall be one Chief Justice and four Associate Justices, and three Justices shall comprise a quorum of the Supreme Court, which shall meet at the seat of government of the United States.
(b) The Chief Justice shall determine the rules and procedures of the Supreme Court and of the United States District Courts, provided that the Supreme Court and United States District Courts shall operate in a manner consistent with the common law, and the Supreme Court and United States District Courts shall base their judgements upon the facts in evidence and the common law.
(d) The Associate Justices shall have precedence according to the date of their commissions, or if two are commissioned on the same date, according to their age.
(e) The Supreme Court shall have original or exclusive jurisdiction over:
1. cases between states, or between a state and a foreign power, or between a state and an organized territory;
2. cases against a foreign diplomat that is visiting the United States, or residing in the United States, for official purposes; and
3. cases between the United States and a state, including cases between a state and an unorganized territory.
(f) The Supreme Court may at its discretion exercise appellate jurisdiction over all cases decided by a United States District Court or a United States Circuit Court.
Section 2. United States District Courts.
(a) There shall be established a judicial district in each of the several states, and within that district a United States District Court, which shall meet in the capital of that state, except that --
1. the Pennsylvania judicial district shall include the NorthWest Territory; and
2. the Georgia judicial district shall include the SouthWest Territory.
(b) The President shall appoint with the advice and consent of the Senate a United States District Court Judge for each district, and an additional judge for the Districts of Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia, provided that each judge must reside within that court's judicial district, and rule from that court's courthouse, and provided further that the judge(s) of each United States District Court shall elect from amongst their number every year a Chief Judge to oversee the administration of the court.
(d) The Chief Judge of each United States District Court shall decide which of the Court's judges shall preside over each case referred to that court, though the Chief Justice must use a fair and impartial system to make this decision.
(e) Each and every Judge of a United States District Court may appoint a Clerk to assist that Judge and keep the records of that Judge's courtroom, and the Chief Judge of a United States District Court may also employ such additional staff members as he deems necessary.
(f) Each United States District Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction over:
1. cases relating to crimes or offenses that are cognizable under the authority of the United States that are committed within that Court's district;
2. cases relating to crimes or offenses committed on the high seas against an individual that resides in that Court's district;
3. cases relating to seizures, forfeitures, and fines made under the authority of the United States within that Court's district;
4. cases made against the federal government by an individual or entity other than one of the several states;
5. cases by the federal government against an individual or entity other than one of the several states;
6. cases by an individual or entity that is not a state against a state in which that individual is not a citizen with the court whose district includes the state handling the case; and
7. cases by an individual or entity of one state against an individual or entity of another state, provided that the defendant has sufficient contacts with the court's judicial district.
(g) Each United States District Court shall have appellate jurisdiction over cases decided by the highest court of a state:
1. where the validity of a treaty or federal law is questioned;
2. where the decision is repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States; and
3. where the decision interprets a clause of the constitution, or a treaty, or a law, or a commission held under the United States.
(h) The Chief Judge of the United States District Court may provide for regular, en banc meetings of that court, and during those meetings, the Court may consider appeals of the decisions of individual judges of that court.
(i) All trials held in the United States District Courts shall be by twelve-man jury, with the jurors selected at random from amongst the United States citizens residing within that Court's district, and each Juror shall be paid $1 for every day of service, but both the defense and the prosecution shall be allowed to reject a number of jurors to be determined by the Judge based on said Jurors' bias, and no person shall serve on a Jury that is:
1. a law enforcement officer;
2. a person trained as an attorney;
3. a person convicted of any crime;
4. an officer of the United States;
5. an officer of a state government; or
6. an employee of any court.
(j) Subsection (h) notwithstanding, if a defendant and the prosecutor agree that the Judge may rule on his guilt instead of a Jury, the Judge shall do so, but no Judge shall preside over or rule on any case if that Judge has a vested interest in its outcome or a strong bias for or against the defendant, the plaintiff, or the prosecution.
Section 3. Circuit Court of Appeal. (a) There shall be established three Circuit Courts of Appeal, constituted as follows -- 1. First Circuit -- Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania 2. Second Circuit -- Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Georgia, Georgia
(b) The President shall appoint with the advice and consent of the Senate three United States Circuit Court Judges for each Judicial Circuit, provided that these judges must reside within that circuit's jurisdiction, and provided further that the judges of each Circuit Court will elect from amongst their number every year a Chief Judge to oversee the administration of the court.
(c) Each Chief Judge of a United States Circuit Court of Appeal may appoint a Clerk to assist the Judges of the Court and keep the records of that Circuit Court, and the Chief Judge of a United States Circuit Court may also employ such additional staff members as he deems necessary.
(d) The United States Circuit Court shall possess appellate jurisdiction over all matters decided by a District Court, and once a Circuit Court exercises it's jurisdiction over a case, no District Court may exercise its review under Section 2(h) of this Chapter.
(e) Each United States Circuit Court shall hold regular session at each of the federal courthouses within its circuit, and during such session shall hear appeals from the District Court operating at that courthouse, except that the Chief Judge of a Circuit Court may select to hold session at any federal building in a United States Territory if the Chief Judge determines that holding session at the nearest federal courthouse would provide an unfair advantage to one of the parties in a case arising in that territory.
Section 4. Judicial Regulations.
(a) The Supreme Court and the United States District Courts shall have the power:
1. to issue writs of scire facis;
2. to issue writs of habeus corpus;
3. to issue writs of ne exeat republica but such a writ shall be issued only if a Judge is presented with satisfactory evidence that the defendant intends to flee the United States;
4. to issue injunctions as necessary to preserve the status quo in a dispute until all court proceedings regarding that matter are complete, but a court of the United States may not grant an injunction to stay proceedings in a state court except as expressly authorized by Act of Congress, or where necessary in aid of its jurisdiction, or to protect or effectuate its judgments;
5. to require the parties of a case to produce books or writings in their possession or power, which contain evidence pertinent to the issue, in cases and under circumstances where they might be compelled to produce the same by ordinary rules of proceeding in chancery;
6. to rule against any individual or entity that fails to comply with an order under part 5 of this subsection;
7. to grant new trials in cases where there has been a trial by jury for reasons for which new trials have usually been granted in the courts of law, but only the Supreme Court shall have this authority;
8. to impose and administer all necessary oaths or affirmations;
9. to punish, by fine or imprisonment, at the discretion of said courts, all contempts of authority in any cause or hearing before the same;
10. to issue a writ of mandamus when the court deems it necessary to ensure the enforcement of federal law, or the Constitution, or a decision of that court;
11. to stay execution of a verdict, at the discretion of the court, for purposes of protecting the defendant or allowing time for an appeal;
12. to grant bail for defendants in the custody of the District Court, or a state, and to set the amount of bail, or to refuse to grant bail;
13. to make rulings ad absentum if a defendant fails to appear;
14. to order a defendant to pay damages equal to those inflicted, or if no set amount of damages were inflicted, to order a defendant to pay damages per the order of the jury;
15. to issue a writ of venire and, if necessary, a write of venire facias;
16. to grant any Federal Judge, state judge, or other magistrate the authority to take a deposition de bene esse from an individual whose testimony is necessary in a civil case, so long as that individual lives more than 100 miles from the court in which the case is being considered, or if that person will die, or become unable to testify due to illness, prior to the trial;
17. to issue a subpoena compelling a person to appear to testify on a matter, civil or criminal, though a person may appeal such an order from a United States District Court to the Supreme Court, provided the Supreme Court accepts that appeal;
18. to issue a writ of dedimus postestatem;
19. to ignore defects in a form, warrant, judgement, or other document and to order said defects corrected;
20. to issue a writ of mittimus for a person upon receipt of information sufficient to warrant a prudent person's belief that the wanted individual committed a crime;
21. to issue a warrant authorizing the search of a person's home or other properties, but only upon receipt of information sufficient to warrant a prudent person's belief that evidence of a crime or contraband would be found in the search;
22. to issue other writs that may be necessary for the exercise of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the principles and usage of law; and
23. to invalidate an act of Congress or order of the executive if said at or order violates the Constitution of the United States of America.
(b) No person shall be tried in federal court for an offense that occurred more than seven years previous, except if that crime is a capital offense other than treason.
(d) The administrator or executor of the estate of a deceased party may prosecute or defend in a case in which that deceased party was the plaintiff, petitioner, or defendant; and if the administrator or executor of such an estate declines to do so, the Judge presiding over the case may rule against the state; but if the administrator or executor of such an estate agrees to do so, he shall be allowed up to a year to prepare for such.
(e) If two or more plaintiffs file suit and one or more of those plaintiffs dies before the court renders a decision on the case, the remaining plaintiffs may continue the suit, dividing any rewards with the estate of the deceased plaintiff.
(f) Any justice of the peace may apprehend an individual that has committed a crime against the United States.
(g) Any plaintiff or defendant may represent himself or herself in court but may also chose to be represented by an attorney, and in a criminal trial, if a defendant desires the assistance or the representation of an attorney but cannot afford one, the court will hire an attorney to assist or defend him, paying a reasonable rate, but the court shall only hire an attorney for this purpose if there is no attorney willing to provide these services pro bono, provided that said attorney is qualified in the eyes of the court.
(h) In a criminal or civil trial, the prosecution shall provide the defense a copy of all evidence that the prosecution intends to site, and the prosecution shall do so a reasonable amount of time prior to the trial, and if the prosecution fails to do so, the trial shall be recessed until the defense can prepare properly to respond to the evidence.
(i) Each and every Federal Court shall endeavor to provide an individual accused of any crime with as much time as reasonably possible to prepare a defense.
Section 5. Sovereign Immunity.
(a) The federal government, its officers, and its employees, shall not be immune from prosecution, and shall not be immune from suit, but shall only be sued in a court of the United States, and not a court of any foreign nation or any of the several states.
(b) Section 1 notwithstanding, the courts of the United States shall be immune from suit.
Section 10. Federal Crimes. (a) It shall be a federal offense, which shall be tried only before a federal court, for any person to commit a felony or misdemeanor as defined by this act, if: 1. the victim of the crime was an officer of the United States; 2. the victim of the crime was an employee of the United States performing the duties of his position; 3. the victim of the crime was a state or local employee that was attempting to enforce a federal law; 4. the offense was committed by an officer or enlistedman of the Navy or Army; 5. the offense was committed against the United States; or 6. the offense was committed in a United States Embassy or Consulate.
(b) Subsection (a) notwithstanding, crimes committed by officers or enlistedmen of the Navy and Army shall be tried by a federal court only during peacetime, and during wartime shall be tried pursuant to Section 8 of this Act.
(c) Any offense committed upon federal property in any state will be punished according to the laws of that state, and any offense committed upon federal property in any territory will be punished according to the laws of that territory.
Section 11. Treason, Espionage. (a) Treason -- It shall be a capital offense for any citizen or resident of the United States to intentionally or knowingly commit treason, as defined by the Constitution."
(b) Espionage -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to intentionally or knowingly review files that the Analyst has classified as "sensitive" to national security, except if the Analyst authorized that person to review those files, and it shall be the same offense for a person to steal, transfer, sell, or otherwise use files classified as "sensitive" to national security by the Analyst in any manner not authorized by the analyst.
Section 12. Piracy. (a) Piracy -- It shall be a capital offense for any person aboard a private vessel on the high seas to commit any act of violence, detention, or depredation, against another vessel, or against persons or property onboard such vessel, or for any person to conspire or aid in the commission of such an act.
(b) Privateering -- Subsection a notwithstanding, no captain or crew of a vessel shall be tried under this statute if said captain or crew was acting pursuant to a letter of marquee and reprisal granted by any government or the United States, but such captain and crew shall be forced to surrender their ship if captured, and shall be treated as prisoners of war until that time as the government that granted them a letter of marquee and reprisal negotiates with the United States for their release.
Section 13. Murder and Manslaughter. (a) Murder -- It shall be a capital offense for any person to intentionally or knowingly kill a person.
(b) Manslaughter -- It shall be a felony for any person to recklessly or negligently kill a person.
Section 14. Capital Offenses.
(a) Rape -- It shall be a capital offense for any man to force a woman, using violence or the threat thereof, to have sex, or to perform sexual acts with a woman that is not yet thirteen years of age.
(b) Robbery -- It shall be a capital offense for any person to use force, or the threat thereof, to deprive any person of any property.
(c) Kidnapping -- It shall be a capital offense for any person to capture or detain a person without legal authority.
Section 15. Felonies Against Persons. (a) Assault and Battery -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to attack another person, and to do significant bodily harm to that person.
(b) Coercion -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to coerce another person to do anything, either through threat of force or blackmail.
(c) Reckless Endangerment -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to recklessly endanger the life of another.
Section 16. Felonies Against Property. (a) Counterfeiting -- It shall be a felony offense for a person to falsely make, alter, forge or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly act or assist in the false making, altering, forging, or counterfeiting of any coin, certificate, indent, or other public security of the United States.
(b) Forgery -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to utter, put off, or offer, or cause to be uttered, put off, or offered in payment or for sale any false, forged, altered, or counterfeited certificate, indent or other public security of the United States, with intention to defraud any person, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged or counterfeited.
(c) Fraud -- It shall be a felony offense for a person to, with the intent to defraud any person, make or cause to be made any false representation, or to assist in such.
(d) Larceny -- It shall be a felony offense to steal the property or another, or to borrow that property without the owner's consent, or to possess property stolen from a person.
Section 17. Felonies Against the Public. (a) Corruption -- It shall be a felony offense to, while serving as a federal officer or working as a federal employee, accept a reward in return for providing a special benefit or for taking any official action that said employee would not normally take, even if that action is not to take an action.
(b) Bribery -- It shall be a felony offense to offer a reward to a federal officer, or federal employee, in order to convince that officer or employee to provide special benefit or to take any other official action that said employee would not normally take, even if that action is not to take an action.
(c) Obstruction of Justice -- It shall be a felony offense for any person to obstruct a duly authorized individual's attempts to enforce the laws of the Untied States.
(d) Postal Corruption -- It shall be a felony offense for any employee of the Postal Service: 1. to unlawfully detain, delay, or open any letter, packet, bag or mail of letters, with which he shall be entrusted, or which shall have come to his possession, and which are intended to be conveyed by post; and 2. to secret, embezzle, or destroy any letter or packet entrusted to him; 3. to, after taking charge of the mail of the United States, quit or desert the same, before his arrival at the next post-office.
(e) Perjury -- It shall be a felony offense to provide false information to a federal court, federal court officer, federal law enforcement officer, or at any other time on federal lands, after taking an oath to tell the truth.
Section 18. Misdemeanor. (a) Assault -- It shall be a misdemeanor for any person to attack another person without doing bodily harm, or doing only minor bodily harm.
(b) Theft -- It shall be a misdemeanor for any person to commit fraud or theft if the amount taken is less than five dollars.
(c) Postal Fraud -- It shall be a misdemeanor offense known for any person: 1. to open or receive any letter or packet not addressed to that person, except with the permission of the person to whom the letter or packet was addressed; 2. to counterfeit the hand-writing of any other person in order to evade payment of postage; 3. to, as an employee of the Postal Service, demand or receive any rate of postage, or any gratuity or reward, other than is provided by the regulations and prices laid out by the Postmaster; or 4. to, as an employee of the Postal Service, fail to duly account and answer to the Postmaster for all bye or way-letters, pursuant to the regulations laid out by the Postmaster.
(d) Postal Obstruction -- It shall be a misdemeanor offense for any person: 1. to obstruct or retard the passage of a letter or packet by any means; 2. to receive, order, dispatch, convey, carry, or deliver any letter or packet, other than a newspaper, for hire or reward, provided that this part shall not prevent a person from sending a letter or packet; or 3. to, if that person is a ferryman, prevent or delay the transport of a letter or packet across any ferry by willful negligence or refusal.
(c) Violation -- It shall be a misdemeanor offense for any person to violate any law of the United States.
Section 19. Conspiracy, Attempt, Aid. (a) Felony -- It shall be a felony for any person to conspire, attempt, or aid another in attempting to commit a capital offense or a felony.
(b) Misdemeanor -- It shall be a misdemeanor for any person to conspire, attempt, or aid another in attempting to commit a misdemeanor.
(c) Aiding and Abetting -- It shall be a felony offense for a person to provide assistance to a fugitive.
Section 20. Punishments. (a) The commission of a capital offense shall be punishable by: 1. death; 2. a term of imprisonment not to exceed the offender's natural life; 3. a fine not to exceed the sum of $5,000 and the cost of trying and imprisoning or executing the offender; or 4. any combination of the above.
(b) The commission of a felony shall be punishable by: 1. a term of imprisonment not to exceed twenty years; 2. a fine not to exceed the sum of $1,000, restitution, and the cost of trying and imprisoning the offender; or 3. any combination of the above.
(c) The commission of a misdemeanor shall be punishable by: 1. a term of imprisonment not to exceed twenty years; 2. a fine not to exceed the sum of $500, restitution, and the cost of trying and imprisoning the offender; 3. probation of up to five years; or 4. any combination of the above.
Section 21. Justifiable Crimes. (a) No person shall be convicted under any part of this Title if: 1. that person is a soldier, sailor, or military officer of another country, whose actions were at the orders of that country, which was at a state of war with the United States; 2. that person is a law enforcement officer, who took such actions in a reasonable effort to capture a person suspected of committing a crime, or known to have committed a crime; 3. that person took such actions reasonably to defend himself, or to defend another, from a reasonable threat; 4. that person took such actions reasonably necessary to defend his property; or 5. that person took such actions pursuant to orders issued to him as a member of the militia or officer or enlistedman of the Army or Navy.
(b) It shall not be murder for a Judge to sentence a person to death as provided by law, or for a prison guard to imprison a person as provided by law, or for an executioner to carry out an execution as provided by law.
Section 22. Fugitives. (a) For the purposes of the acts of Congress and the Constitution, a "fugitive," is: 1. a person for whom any court in the United States has issued a writ of mittimus; 2. a person that violated a bail agreement made with a federal court, state court, the court of an organized territory, or the court of an unorganized territory; or 3. a person that escaped from the custody of the federal government, a state government, the government of an organized territory, or the government of an unorganized territory.
(b) For the purposes of the acts of Congress and the Constitution, the "appropriate authority," is, respectively, the: 1. law enforcement agency charged with apprehending the fugitive by the court that issued a writ of mittimus for that fugitive; 2. law enforcement agency charged with apprehending violators of bail agreements of the court with whom the fugitive signed, then broke, a bail agreement; or 3. law enforcement agency charged with apprehending escapees from the custody of the government from which the fugitive escaped custody.
Section 23. Mutiny, Relief. (a) It shall be an offense known as mutiny for any officer or enlistedman of the United States Army or United States Navy to refuse to follow the lawful order of a superior officer or enlistedman or to rebel against, remove, or relieve his commanding officer, except as provided under subsection (b), and any officer or enlistedman convicted of this offense shall be imprisoned for not longer than 20 years.
(b) An officer or enlistedman may relieve a superior officer or enlistedman if: 1. the superior officer or enlistedman is mentally compromised; 2. the superior officer or enlistedman is severely injured; or 3. the superior officer or enlistedman intends to commit treason.
(c) It shall be the duty of any officer of the United States, or enlistedman of the Army of the Navy, to refuse any order that is illegal, and no officer or enlistedman shall be imprisoned, fined, or dishonorably discharged for refusing an order if that officer or enlistedman reasonably believed the order was illegal.
Section 24. Punishments. (a) An officer or enlistedman of the Navy or Army that commits any offense established by this Title may also be dishonorably discharged from the Army and Navy.
(b) If an officer or enlistedman of the Navy or Army commits an offense, then the Navy or Army, respectively, shall provide for the detainment of that person until trial (or court martial), but shall turn the offender over to the appropriate Marshal for imprisonment if a term of imprisonment is assigned to the offender.
(c) An officer or enlistedman of the Army or Navy that commits any offense under this Title during wartime shall be tried before a court martial, which shall be comprised of three officers of superior rank to the offender, who shall be selected by the Superintendent or Marshal, and the offender shall receive the same rights before this court martial as he would before a regular court, except the right to a jury.
(a) For the purposes of this Chapter, "gainfully employed" means employed in a position allowing an individual to make regular, reasonable payments on the debt.
(b) For the purposes of this Chapter, "service in defense of the nation," means service in the Continental Army, Continental Navy, Legion of the United States, United States Army, United States Navy, any militia deployed for combat service during the War for Independence, or any militia deployed at the directive of the United States.
Section 26. Debtors Imprisonment.
(a) It shall be unlawful to imprison for failure to pay private debt any individual that is gainfully employed.
(b) It shall be unlawful to imprison for failure to pay private debt any individual maimed, crippled, or injured during service in defense of the nation in such a way that prevents from attaining gainful employment.